Computers understand instructions that are written in a specific language written in a pre-planned syntactical form. This form is called a “Programming Language”. These tasks are often based on abstract mathematics, and some are extremely complex. The fact that computers are Binary in form further complicates the situation, as a computer can only be operated on in binary digital form. The original programs were in fact in binary format, to speak directly to the computer. But this proved to be slow and cumbersome. One of the revolutionary assets of the computer was its extraordinary speed, that left humans far behind. But direct binary communication between man and machine reduced the speed of conversion of instruction to performance of tasks. This is one of the major reasons to create Programming Languages. Since those early days, Programming Languages have proliferated, from the basic Linux/Unix based Open Source and Proprietary Languages. It is time to judge the Most Popular Programming Languages.
Programming languages use a limited number of keywords, and by combination of these keywords, a vast number of programs of different types are created. There is a close relationship between a Programming Language and Code. A Language can be analyzed into Syntax and Semantics. Some are defined by an SO standard, like C Language.
Types of Programming Languages
Programming Languages can be of varied types. Starting with the earliest, we now list a number of these Languages, some of which are now rarely used, or have been developed further. The Five Main Types are as follows:
- Procedural Programming Language: this executes a sequence of statements which lead to a result. Multiple variables are used, along with heavy loops, and this is the main difference between this and Functional Programming Languages.
- Functional Programming Language: Recursive functions are mainly used instead of heavy loops, by the use of stored data. The main focus here is on the return value of functions.
- Object Oriented Programming Language: the main concept of this language is the viewpoint that the environment is viewed as a group of objects. These objects internally encapsulate the complete data that comprises the object, which can be accessed externally. It stresses reusability through inheritance. Code changes are required by using polymorphism.
- Scripting Programming Language: started by tiny syntax, these have elements of Object Oriented Programming Language, but are a special category of their own.
- Logic Programming Language: the computer is invited to choose the logic of its own, by first making declarative statements.
Some of the Most Popular Programming Languages listed below:
- HTML 5: Simple to learn, it is easy to create sites with this language. It is supported by any browser; it has light-weight files and is completely free.
- Python: This is the most popular Server Side programming language, and is most often demanded by employers. In 2020 it is free, with a very simple code, with support for most libraries, and the possibility of asynchronous coding.
- Java: The Java environment displays extraordinary stability. This is why all Android applications are written in Java. It has object-oriented programming, a good level of security, high stability, automatic memory management, and does not require specific hardware infrastructure.
- PHP: PHP is the highest ranked Back End programming language, used by about 70% of the sites, and about 90% of the code in WordPress. In 2020, it is easy to learn, a huge community and superb de-bugging.
Future Trends point to the overwhelming influence of AI and Speech Recognition on Programming Languages.